References

References are colour-coded based on the major branches of the mind map below (click to view it full size):

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Falls

Bloomfield, J., Polman, R., O’Donoghue, P., & McNaughton, L. (2007). Effective speed and agility conditioning methodology for random intermittent dynamic type sports. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(4), 1093-1100.

Brauer, S. G., Neros, C., & Woollacott, M. (2008). Balance control in the elderly: do Masters athletes show more efficient balance responses than healthy older adults?. Aging clinical and experimental research, 20(5), 406-411.

Brughelli, M., Cronin, J., Levin, G., & Chaouachi, A. (2008). Understanding change of direction ability in sport. Sports medicine, 38(12), 1045-1063.

Cho, B. L., Scarpace, D., & Alexander, N. B. (2004). Tests of stepping as indicators of mobility, balance, and fall risk in balance‐impaired older adults.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52(7), 1168-1173.

Choy, N. L., Brauer, S., & Nitz, J. (2003). Changes in postural stability in women aged 20 to 80 years. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(6), M525-M530.

Colcombe, S., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults a meta-analytic study. Psychological science, 14(2), 125-130.

Cripps R and Carman J (2001). Falls by the elderly in Australia: trends and data for 1998, Injury Research and Statistics Series, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Adelaide.

Henry, G., Dawson, B., Lay, B., & Young, W. (2012). Effects of a feint on reactive agility performance. Journal of sports sciences, 30(8), 787-795.

Inness, E. L., Mansfield, A., Lakhani, B., Bayley, M., & McIlroy, W. E. (2014). Impaired reactive stepping among patients ready for discharge from inpatient stroke rehabilitation. Physical therapy, 94(12), 1755-1764.

Jeffreys, I. (2011). A task-based approach to developing context-specific agility. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 33(4), 52-59.

Kida, N., Oda, S., & Matsumura, M. (2005). Intensive baseball practice improves the Go/Nogo reaction time, but not the simple reaction time.Cognitive brain research, 22(2), 257-264.

Kilby, M. C., Slobounov, S. M., & Newell, K. M. (2014). Aging and the recovery of postural stability from taking a step. Gait & posture, 40(4), 701-706.

Lord, S. R., Clark, R. D., & Webster, I. W. (1991). Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39(12), 1194-1200.

Lord, S. R., Ward, J. A., Williams, P., & Anstey, K. J. (1994). Physiological Factors Associated with Falls in Older Community‐Dwelling Women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42(10), 1110-1117.

Lord, S. R., & Clark, R. D. (1996). Simple physiological and clinical tests for the accurate prediction of falling in older people. Gerontology, 42(4), 199-203.

Lord, S. R., & Fitzpatrick, R. C. (2001). Choice stepping reaction time a composite measure of falls risk in older people. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(10), M627-M632.

Luchies, C. W., Alexander, N. B., Schultz, A. B., & Ashton‐Miller, J. (1994). Stepping responses of young and old adults to postural disturbances: kinematics. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 42(5), 506-512.

Luchies, C. W., Schiffman, J., Richards, L. G., Thompson, M. R., Bazuin, D., & DeYoung, A. J. (2002). Effects of age, step direction, and reaction condition on the ability to step quickly. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57(4), M246-M249.

Maki, B. E., & Mcllroy, W. E. (1999). The control of foot placement during compensatory stepping reactions: does speed of response take precedence over stability?. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 7(1), 80-90.

Maki, B. E., & McIlroy, W. E. (2006). Control of rapid limb movements for balance recovery: age-related changes and implications for fall prevention.Age and ageing, 35(suppl 2), ii12-ii18.

Medell, J. L., & Alexander, N. B. (2000). A clinical measure of maximal and rapid stepping in older women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(8), M429-M433.

McIlroy, W. E., & Maki, B. E. (1996). Age-related changes in compensatory stepping in response to unpredictable perturbations. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 51(6), M289-M296.

Nitz, J. C., Choy, N. L., & Isles, R. C. (2003). Medial–lateral postural stability in community dwelling women over 40 years of age. Clinical rehabilitation, 17(7), 765-767.

Nolan, M., Nitz, J., Choy, N. L., & Illing, S. (2010). Age-related changes in musculoskeletal function, balance and mobility measures in men aged 30–80 years. The Aging Male, 13(3), 194-201.

Nnodim, J. O., Strasburg, D., Nabozny, M., Nyquist, L., Galecki, A., Chen, S., & Alexander, N. B. (2006). Dynamic balance and stepping versus tai chi training to improve balance and stepping in at‐risk older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 54(12), 1825-1831.

Nolan, M., Nitz, J., Choy, N. L., & Illing, S. (2010). Age-related changes in musculoskeletal function, balance and mobility measures in men aged 30-80 years. The Aging Male, 13(3), 194-201.

Okubo, Y., Schoene, D., & Lord, S. R. (2016). Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine, bjsports-2015.

Pai, Y. C., Rogers, M. W., Patton, J., Cain, T. D., & Hanke, T. A. (1998). Static versus dynamic predictions of protective stepping following waist–pull perturbations in young and older adults. Journal of biomechanics, 31(12), 1111-1118.

Schulz, B. W., Ashton-Miller, J. A., & Alexander, N. B. (2005). Compensatory stepping in response to waist pulls in balance-impaired and unimpaired women. Gait & posture, 22(3), 198-209.

Rogers, M. W., Johnson, M. E., Martinez, K. M., Mille, M. L., & Hedman, L. D. (2003). Step training improves the speed of voluntary step initiation in aging.The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 58(1), M46-M51.

Rogers, M. W., Hedman, L. D., Johnson, M. E., Martinez, K. M., & Mille, M. L. (2003). Triggering of protective stepping for the control of human balance: age and contextual dependence. Cognitive brain research, 16(2), 192-198.

Thelen, D. G., Wojcik, L. A., Schultz, A. B., Ashton-Miller, J. A., & Alexander, N. B. (1997). Age differences in using a rapid step to regain balance during a forward fall. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52(1), M8-M13.

Wojtys, E. M., Huston, L. J., Taylor, P. D., & Bastian, S. D. (1996). Neuromuscular adaptations in isokinetic, isotonic, and agility training programs. The American journal of sports medicine, 24(2), 187-192.

Woolley, S. M., Czaja, S. J., & Drury, C. G. (1997). An assessment of falls in elderly men and women. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 52(2), M80-M87.

Young, W., & Rogers, N. (2014). Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed. Journal of sports sciences, 32(4), 307-314.

Young, W. B., Miller, I. R., & Talpey, S. W. (2015). Physical qualities predict change-of-direction speed but not defensive agility in Australian rules football.The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(1), 206-212.

Exergaming

Barcelos, N., Shah, N., Cohen, K., Hogan, M. J., Mulkerrin, E., Arciero, P. J., … & Anderson-Hanley, C. (2015). Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 21(10), 768-779.

Fu, A. S., Gao, K. L., Tung, A. K., Tsang, W. W., & Kwan, M. M. (2015). Effectiveness of exergaming training in reducing risk and incidence of falls in frail older adults with a history of falls. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 96(12), 2096-2102.

Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2008). Exercising your brain: a review of human brain plasticity and training-induced learning. Psychology and aging, 23(4), 692.

Gschwind, Y. J., Schoene, D., Lord, S. R., Ejupi, A., Valenzuela, T., Aal, K., … & Delbaere, K. (2015). The effect of sensor-based exercise at home on functional performance associated with fall risk in older people–a comparison of two exergame interventions. European review of aging and physical activity, 12(1), 1.

Hung, J. W., Chou, C. X., Hsieh, Y. W., Wu, W. C., Yu, M. Y., Chen, P. C., … & Ding, S. E. (2014). Randomized comparison trial of balance training by using exergaming and conventional weight-shift therapy in patients with chronic stroke. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 95(9), 1629-1637.

Renker, J. (2015). Exergaming with additional postural demands improves balance and gait in patients with multiple sclerosis as much as conventional balance training and leads to high adherence to home-based balance training. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 96(4), 761.

Stanmore, E., Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., de Bruin, E. D., & Firth, J. (2017). The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.

Cognitive Processing Speed

Agmon, M., Belza, B., Nguyen, H. Q., Logsdon, R. G., & Kelly, V. E. (2014). A systematic review of interventions conducted in clinical or community settings to improve dual-task postural control in older adults. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 477–492. http://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S54978

Altmann, L. J., Stegemöller, E., Hazamy, A. A., Wilson, J. P., Okun, M. S., McFarland, N. R., … & Hass, C. J. (2015). Unexpected Dual Task Benefits on Cycling in Parkinson Disease and Healthy Adults: A Neuro-Behavioral Model.PloS one, 10(5), e0125470.

Brauer, S. G., & Morris, M. E. (2010). Can people with Parkinson’s disease improve dual tasking when walking?. Gait & posture, 31(2), 229-233.

Burgess, P. W. (2000). Real-world multitasking from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Control of cognitive processes: Attention and performance XVIII, 465-472.

Bühner, M., König, C. J., Pick, M., & Krumm, S. (2006). Working memory dimensions as differential predictors of the speed and error aspect of multitasking performance. Human Performance, 19(3), 253-275.

Canning, C. G., Ada, L., & Woodhouse, E. (2008). Multiple-task walking training in people with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease: a pilot study.Clinical Rehabilitation, 22(3), 226-233.

Choi, J. H., Kim, B. R., Han, E. Y., & Kim, S. M. (2015). The effect of dual-task training on balance and cognition in patients with subacute post-stroke.Annals of rehabilitation medicine, 39(1), 81-90.

Der, G., & Deary, I. J. (2006). Reaction time age changes and sex differences in adulthood. Results from a large, population based study: the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey. Psychol Aging, 21, 62-73.

Der, G., & Deary, I. J. (2006). Age and sex differences in reaction time in adulthood: results from the United Kingdom Health and Lifestyle Survey.Psychology and aging, 21(1), 62.

Dux, P. E., Tombu, M. N., Harrison, S., Rogers, B. P., Tong, F., & Marois, R. (2009). Training improves multitasking performance by increasing the speed of information processing in human prefrontal cortex. Neuron, 63(1), 127-138.

Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2008). Exercising your brain: a review of human brain plasticity and training-induced learning. Psychology and aging, 23(4), 692.

Hedden, T., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2004). Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nature reviews neuroscience, 5(2), 87-96.

Hsu, C. L., Nagamatsu, L. S., Davis, J. C., & Liu-Ambrose, T. (2012). Examining the relationship between specific cognitive processes and falls risk in older adults: a systematic review. Osteoporosis international, 23(10), 2409-2424.

Ilamkar, K. R. (2014). Is motor slowing a universal phenomenon of Aging? Study correlates the effect of aging on psychomotor speed. Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences, 1(7), 99-103.

Jost, K., Bryck, R. L., Vogel, E. K., & Mayr, U. (2010). Are old adults just like low working memory young adults? Filtering efficiency and age differences in visual working memory. Cerebral Cortex, bhq185.

Kramer, A., Dettmers, C., & Gruber, M. (2014). Exergaming with additional postural demands improves balance and gait in patients with multiple sclerosis as much as conventional balance training and leads to high adherence to home-based balance training. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 95(10), 1803-1809.

Onishi, N. (1966). Changes of the jumping reaction time in relation to age. J Sci Lab, 42, 5-16.

Park, D. C., & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2009). The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annual review of psychology, 60, 173.
Payer, D. (2006). Working memory across the adult lifespan. Lifespan Cognition: Mechanisms of Change. Oxford University Press, New York, 128-142.

Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Park, D. C. (2010). Human neuroscience and the aging mind: a new look at old problems. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, gbq035.

Salthouse, T. A. (2000). Steps toward the explanation of adult age differences in cognition.Fisk, J. E., & Warr, P. (1996). Age and working memory: the role of perceptual speed, the central executive, and the phonological loop.Psychology and aging, 11(2), 316.

Salthouse, T. A. (2009). When does age-related cognitive decline begin?.Neurobiology of aging, 30(4), 507-514.

Sander, M. C., Lindenberger, U., & Werkle-Bergner, M. (2012). Lifespan age differences in working memory: A two-component framework. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(9), 2007-2033.

Schwenk, M., Zieschang, T., Oster, P., & Hauer, K. (2010). Dual-task performances can be improved in patients with dementia; A randomized controlled trial. Neurology, 74(24), 1961-1968.

Silsupadol, P., Shumway-Cook, A., Lugade, V., van Donkelaar, P., Chou, L. S., Mayr, U., & Woollacott, M. H. (2009). Effects of single-task versus dual-task training on balance performance in older adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation,90(3), 381-387.

Stelmach, G. E., & Worringham, C. J. (1985). Sensorimotor deficits related to postural stability. Implications for falling in the elderly. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 1(3), 679-694.

Strouwen, C., Molenaar, E. A., Münks, L., Keus, S. H., Bloem, B. R., Rochester, L., & Nieuwboer, A. (2015). Dual tasking in Parkinson’s disease: should we train hazardous behavior?. Expert review of neurotherapeutics,15(9), 1031-1039.

T Krampe, R. T., Schaefer, S., Lindenberger, U., & Baltes, P. B. (2011). Lifespan changes in multi-tasking: concurrent walking and memory search in children, young, and older adults. Gait & posture, 33(3), 401-405.

Wilkinson, R. T., & Allison, S. (1989). Age and simple reaction time: Decade differences for 5,325 subjects. Journal of gerontology, 44(2), P29-P35.

Wilson, R. S., Beckett, L. A., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A., Bach, J., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2002). Individual differences in rates of change in cognitive abilities of older persons. Psychology and aging, 17(2), 179.

Verhaeghen, P., Steitz, D. W., Sliwinski, M. J., & Cerella, J. (2003). Aging and dual-task performance: a meta-analysis. Psychology and aging, 18(3), 443.

Yang, Y. R., Wang, R. Y., Chen, Y. C., & Kao, M. J. (2007). Dual-task exercise improves walking ability in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 88(10), 1236-1240.

Dementia

Alescio-Lautier, B., et al., 2014. “Open Letter Response to ‘A Consensus on the Brain Training Industry from the Scientific Community.’ ” www.cognitivetraining data.org/. Retrieved November 16, 2015.

Alladi, S., Bak, T. H., Duggirala, V., Surampudi, B., Shailaja, M., Shukla, A. K., … & Kaul, S. (2013). Bilingualism delays age at onset of dementia, independent of education and immigration status. Neurology, 81(22), 1938-1944.

Allaire, J. C., Bäckman, L., Balota, D. A., Bavelier, D., Bjork, R. A., & Bower, G. H. (2014). A Consensus on the Brain Training Industry from the Scientific Community. Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Stanford Center on Longevity. http://longevity3. stanford. edu/blog/2014/10/15/the-consensuson-the-brain-training-industryfrom-the-scientific-community/. Retrieved January, 15, 2015.

Antoniou, M., Gunasekera, G., & Wong, P. C. M. (2013). Foreign language training as cognitive therapy for age-related cognitive decline: A hypothesis for future research. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 37(10 0 2), 2689–2698. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.09.004
Bak, T. H., Nissan, J. J., Allerhand, M. M., & Deary, I. J. (2014). Does bilingualism influence cognitive aging?. Annals of neurology, 75(6), 959-963.

Burley, C. V., Bailey, D. M., Marley, C. J., & Lucas, S. J. (2016). Brain train to combat brain drain; focus on exercise strategies that optimise neuroprotection. Experimental Physiology.

Brodaty, H., Farrow, M., Flicker, L., Hecker, J., & Velandai, S. (2007). Dementia risk reduction: the evidence. Dementia, 13, 1-20.

Clark, S., Parisi, J., Kuo, J., & Carlson, M. C. (2015). Physical Activity Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Executive Function Impairment in Older Women. Journal of aging and health, 0898264315609908.

Colcombe, S. J., Kramer, A. F., Erickson, K. I., Scalf, P., McAuley, E., Cohen, N. J., … & Elavsky, S. (2004). Cardiovascular fitness, cortical plasticity, and aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(9, 3316-3321.

Diamond, A., & Ling, D. S. (2016). Conclusions about interventions, programs, and approaches for improving executive functions that appear justified and those that, despite much hype, do not. Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 18, 34-48.

Etnier, J. L., Nowell, P. M., Landers, D. M., & Sibley, B. A. (2006). A meta-regression to examine the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive performance. Brain research reviews, 52(1), 119-130.

Fernandez, A. 2015, “Solving the Brain Fitness Puzzle Is the Key to Self-Empowered Aging”, Generations, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 37-40.

Hakim, A. A., Petrovitch, H., Burchfiel, C. M., Ross, G. W., Rodriguez, B. L., White, L. R., … & Abbott, R. D. (1998). Effects of walking on mortality among nonsmoking retired men. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(2), 94-99.

Hamer, M., & Chida, Y. (2009). Physical activity and risk of neurodegenerative disease: a systematic review of prospective evidence. Psychological medicine, 39(01), 3-11

Herrera, C., Chambon, C., Michel, B. F., Paban, V., & Alescio-Lautier, B. (2012). Positive effects of computer-based cognitive training in adults with mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia, 50(8), 1871-1881.

Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nature reviews neuroscience, 9(1), 58-65.

Hosking, D. E., Sargent-Cox, K. A., & Anstey, K. J. (2015). An Australian survey of cognitive health beliefs, intentions, and behaviours through the adult life course. Preventive medicine reports, 2, 498-504.

Katz, L. C., & Rubin, M. (2001). Neurobics-fit im Kopf: 83 Übungen zur Leistungssteigerung des Gehirns. Goldmann.

Kennelly, S. P., Lawlor, B. A., & Kenny, R. A. (2009). Blood pressure and the risk for dementia—a double edged sword. Ageing research reviews, 8(2), 61-70.

Kennelly, S. P., Lawlor, B. A., & Kenny, R. A. (2009). Blood pressure and dementia-a comprehensive review. Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders.

Larson, E. B., Wang, L., Bowen, J. D., McCormick, W. C., Teri, L., Crane, P., & Kukull, W. (2006). Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older. Annals of internal medicine, 144(2), 73-81.

La Rue, A. (2010). Healthy brain aging: role of cognitive reserve, cognitive stimulation, and cognitive exercises. Clinics in geriatric medicine, 26(1), 99-111.

Launer, L. J., Ross, G. W., Petrovitch, H., Masaki, K., Foley, D., White, L. R., & Havlik, R. J. (2000). Midlife blood pressure and dementia: the Honolulu–Asia aging study☆. Neurobiology of aging, 21(1), 49-55.

Lautenschlager, N. T., Cox, K. L., Flicker, L., Foster, J. K., van Bockxmeer, F. M., Xiao, J., … & Almeida, O. P. (2008). Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. Jama, 300(9), 1027-1037.

Middleton, L. E., Mitnitski, A., Fallah, N., Kirkland, S. A., & Rockwood, K. (2008). Changes in cognition and mortality in relation to exercise in late life: a population based study. PLoS One, 3(9), e3124.

Nauert, E. (2016). Cognitive training may indicate evidence of training effect but does not show transfer to working memory, cognitive flexibility, or fluid intelligence in college students. 2016 NCUR.

Nishiwaki, Y., Breeze, E., Smeeth, L., Bulpitt, C. J., Peters, R., & Fletcher, A. E. (2004). Validity of the Clock-Drawing Test as a screening tool for cognitive impairment in the elderly. American journal of epidemiology, 160(8), 797-807.

Norton, S., Matthews, F. E., Barnes, D. E., Yaffe, K., & Brayne, C. (2014). Potential for primary prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: an analysis of population-based data. The Lancet Neurology13(8), 788-794.

Paula, J. J. D., Miranda, D. M. D., Moraes, E. N. D., & Malloy-Diniz, L. F. (2013). Mapping the clockworks: what does the Clock Drawing Test assess in normal and pathological aging?. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria, 71(10), 763-768.

Podewils LJ, Guallar E, Kuller LH, et al. Physical activity, APOE genotype, and dementia risk: findings from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study.
Prince, M., Bryce, R., Albanese, E., Wimo, A., Ribeiro, W., & Ferri, C. P. (2013). The global prevalence of dementia: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 9(1), 63-75.

Raji, C. A., Merrill, D. A., Eyre, H., Mallam, S., Torosyan, N., Erickson, K. I., … & Thompson, P. M. (2016). Longitudinal relationships between caloric expenditure and gray matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, (Preprint), 1-11.

Román, G. C. (2005). Vascular dementia prevention: a risk factor analysis.Cerebrovascular Diseases, 20(Suppl. 2), 91-100.

Rovio, S., Kåreholt, I., Helkala, E. L., Viitanen, M., Winblad, B., Tuomilehto, J., … & Kivipelto, M. (2005). Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The Lancet Neurology, 4(11), 705-711.

Sharp, S. I., Aarsland, D., Day, S., Sønnesyn, H., & Ballard, C. (2011). Hypertension is a potential risk factor for vascular dementia: systematic review. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 26(7), 661-669.

Shulman, K. I. (2000). Clock‐drawing: is it the ideal cognitive screening test?.International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 15(6), 548-561.

Souder E, O’Sullivan P and Pechenik G (1999) Comparison of scoring criteria for Clock Drawing Test. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology.

Van Gelder BM, Tijhuis MAR, Kalmijn S, Giampaoli S, Nissinen A, Kromhout D. Physical activity in relation to cognitive decline in elderly men: the FINE Study.

Verdelho, A., Madureira, S., Ferro, J. M., Baezner, H., Blahak, C., Poggesi, A., … & Waldemar, G. (2012). Physical Activity Prevents Progression for Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Dementia Results From the LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) Study. Stroke, 43(12), 3331-3335.

Weuve, J., Kang, J. H., Manson, J. E., Breteler, M. M., Ware, J. H., & Grodstein, F. (2004). Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women. Jama, 292(12), 1454-1461.

Wilson, R. S., De Leon, C. F. M., Barnes, L. L., Schneider, J. A., Bienias, J. L., Evans, D. A., & Bennett, D. A. (2002). Participation in cognitively stimulating activities and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Jama, 287(6), 742-748.

Linking the research

Blondell, S. J., Hammersley-Mather, R., & Veerman, J. L. (2014). Does physical activity prevent cognitive decline and dementia?: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. BMC public health14(1), 1.

Lauenroth, A., Ioannidis, A. E., & Teichmann, B. (2016). Influence of combined physical and cognitive training on cognition: a systematic review. BMC geriatrics16(1), 141.

Lautenschlager, N. T., Cox, K. L., Flicker, L., Foster, J. K., van Bockxmeer, F. M., Xiao, J., … & Almeida, O. P. (2008). Effect of physical activity on cognitive function in older adults at risk for Alzheimer disease: a randomized trial. Jama300(9), 1027-1037.

Ogawa, E. F., You, T., & Leveille, S. G. (2016). Potential Benefits of Exergaming for Cognition and Dual-Task Function in Older Adults: A Systematic Review. Journal of aging and physical activity, 24(2), 332-336.

Okubo, Y., Schoene, D., & Lord, S. R. (2016). Step training improves reaction time, gait and balance and reduces falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British journal of sports medicine, bjsports-2015.

Stanmore, E., Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., de Bruin, E. D., & Firth, J. (2017). The effect of active video games on cognitive functioning in clinical and non-clinical populations: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.

Valenzuela, M., & Sachdev, P. (2009). Can cognitive exercise prevent the onset of dementia? Systematic review of randomized clinical trials with longitudinal follow-up. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry17(3), 179-187.